The border management system is the key control mechanism for overall migration management. Effective border management systems will recognise that facilitation and control are two equally important objectives that must be addressed at the same time.
The ability to address migration issues is a fundamental requirement for responsible national governance, effective international relations and full participation in international or regional institutions. Although migration has been mainly a positive force for development in both countries of origin and destination, unregulated migration can have social, financial and political costs for individuals, societies and governments. Comprehensive, transparent and coherent approaches to immigration on border management processes, involving all countries in the migration on continuum, can help minimise the negative impact of migration on and preserve its integrity as a natural social process. (International Organization for Migration IOM, 1211 Geneva - www.iom.int)
For effective border managements, governments are encouraged to develop appropriate immigration policies and legislation, develop administrative structures and operational systems and the human resource base necessary to respond effectively to diverse migration challenges and to institute appropriate migration on governance.
Objectives of an Effective Border Management System
- To facilitate bona fide travellers, providing a welcoming and efficient gateway to the State.
- To provide a barrier and disincentive to entry for those seeking to circumvent migration laws.
Key Components of an Effective Border Management System
The key operational components of an effective border management system are interconnected (and preferably automated) sub-systems that will include trained personnel, an audit capability, inter-agency and international cooperation, and strategic partnerships with carriers and industry.
Factors determining Design for Controls of Entry and Exit at Borders
- Physical characteristics of the border.
- Border permeability.
- Relationship with immediate State neighbours.
- Commitment and capacity of neighbouring States to control their own borders and manage irregular migration.
- Whether interception of undocumented travellers is planned and feasible at airport hubs or on the high seas.
- How much checking on identity and intentions is done at the border or at points remote from the border?
- Where the visa decision is made.
- The volume and variability of volume of passengers at the border.